Table of Contents
What does IP rating Mean?
IP rating, or Ingress Protection rating, is a standardized classification system used to define the level of protection that an electrical or electronic enclosure provides against the intrusion of solid particles (like dust) and liquids (such as water).
The IP rating is typically displayed as “IP” followed by two numbers (e.g., IP68).
Each digit in the rating represents a specific level of protection against these intrusions:
First Digit (Protection against Solid Particles):
- 0: No protection.
- 1: Protection against objects larger than 50mm (e.g., a hand).
- 2: Protection against objects larger than 12.5mm (e.g., fingers).
- 3: Protection against objects larger than 2.5mm (e.g., tools and wires).
- 4: Protection against objects larger than 1mm (e.g., small tools and wires).
- 5: Dust-protected; limited ingress of dust is permitted (no harmful deposit).
- 6: Dust-tight; complete protection against dust.
Second Digit (Protection against Liquids):
- 0: No protection.
- 1: Protection against vertically falling drops of water (dripping).
- 2: Protection against water droplets at an angle of up to 15 degrees from vertical (dripping when tilted).
- 3: Protection against spraying water at an angle of up to 60 degrees from vertical.
- 4: Protection against water splashing from any direction.
- 5: Protection against water jets (limited ingress permitted).
- 6: Protection against powerful water jets and heavy seas (limited ingress permitted).
- 7: Protection against temporary immersion in water (up to 1 meter depth for a limited time).
- 8: Protection against continuous submersion in water beyond 1 meter (specific conditions defined by the manufacturer).
The IP rating is commonly used to specify the environmental protection of electrical and electronic equipment, such as smartphones, outdoor lighting fixtures, electrical enclosures, and industrial machinery. For example, an IP67 rating indicates that the device is dust-tight (first digit = 6) and can be submerged in water up to 1 meter deep for a limited time (second digit = 7).
When selecting equipment for specific applications, it’s important to consider the IP rating to ensure that the equipment can withstand the environmental conditions it will be exposed to. Different industries and applications may require different levels of protection, and the IP rating helps users make informed choices about the suitability of equipment for their needs.
IP rating is published by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The equivalent European standard is EN 60529.
Why is electrical IP rating important?
IP rating for electrical equipment is a safety matter for both the equipment and the humans using it.
If we use a lower degree of protection against dust or water, the device may become dangerous and may get damaged due to dust and water accumulation.
It’s essential to choose the right IP rating of the equipment for the application you use. For example, if an LED light lamp is used in a swimming pool, it must be fully waterproof to prevent the electrical shock of humans through water.
Also, if we are using an electric motor outside, we should choose the right IP protection degree. If we don’t, the motor will get damaged and burned out, and if any water enters its enclosure, it will become an electrical hazard for any human contact with its body.
The combination of dust and water makes the internal short circuits and the windings burn out.
I have written a complete guide about motor burn out causes and protection. You can find it here.
What is the meaning of 1st and 2nd x in IPxx?
Numbers that follow the IPxx rating code each have a specific meaning:
- The first x indicates the degree of protection that the enclosure provides against dust and solid parts.
- The second x defines the liquid ingress protection level that the enclosure provides.
IP rating code is written as IPxx, while xx are two digits representing the degree of protection. The larger the number the higher the protection degree. IP table is below in this article explaining the protection degree of each number.
What does the X mean in IP2X?
IP2X means The equipment has an IP rating of 2 against solid parts, while the factory performed no tests about the liquid protection degree on this equipment.
When an X letter is set instead of the IP rating number, this means there are no tests for the protection of this equipment.
Example of IPx:
- IPX7 indicates that this equipment is not protected against foreign bodies ingress, And is only protected against moisture with a rating of 7.
- While equipment of IP5X is protected against foreign bodies ingress with a protection degree of 5, While it has no moisture protection testing.
IP Rating Tables
Rating tables are below with the description of the protection degree.
IP First Digit (Solid Particle Protection)
|IP Protection Degree
|Protection against solid parts larger than 50mm diameter, such as the back of the hand.
|Protection against solid parts >12.5mm in diameter, such as Fingers or similar tools and objects.
|Protection against solid parts >2.5mm in diameter, such as Tools and wires.
|Protection against solid parts >1mm diameter, such as screws and wires.
Second Digit (liquid ingress protection)
|IP Protection Degree
|Protection against vertically falling water
|Protection against water up to 15° from vertical
|Protection against water spray up to 60° from vertical
|Protection against water splashes from all directions
|Protection against low-pressure jets from any angle
|Protection against direct high-pressure jets
|Protection against full immersion for up to 30 minutes at depths between 15 cm and 1 meter
|Protection against extended immersion under higher pressure ingress
|(K): Protection against high-pressure, high-temperature jet sprays of water
What is IP rating 3rd digit – IK impact protection rating?
IP rating third digit, also known as IK rating, represents the protection against mechanical impact.
IK rating indicates the protection an enclosure provides the components inside it against mechanical impact. and is often not specified.
The impact-protected devices are commonly used where the enclosure is exposed to mechanical impact such as construction sites and industrial locations.
IK Rated products are important to protect enclosure devices and components inside it. This protection may be a safety or economic issue.
One main component may cause a complete production line to stop working. Here comes the importance of IK-rated products.
IK00 – No Protection
IK01 – Protection against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 56mm.
IK02 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 80mm..
IK03 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.2kg mass dropped from 140mm.
IK04 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 200mm.
IK05 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 280mm.
IK06 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 400mm.
IK07 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.5kg mass dropped from 400mm.
IK08 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 1.7kg mass dropped from 300mm.
IK09 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 5kg mass dropped from 200mm.
IK10 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 5kg mass dropped from 400mm.
Which IP is waterproof LED lights?
- IPx8 LED lights are fully protected against water penetration and immersion. LED lighting with IP68 can be fully immersed in water continuously and of course, can be used outdoors.
- IPx7 LED lights are also waterproof and you can use them anywhere outside, but IP67 LED lights can’t be immersed in water continuously.
- IP65 LED lights are splashproof and can be used in the bathroom and under kitchen cabinets.
- IP33 LED lights are not water or dust-proof, they are good for indoor places where no water splashes or dust exist.
IP code on electrical equipment nameplates
The IP protection is in the form IP XX, the photo shows a motor nameplate with an IP rating of IP56, this motor is protected against dust and a direct high-pressure jet of water.