What Is IP Rating (Ingress Protection)

What Is IP Rating (Ingress Protection)

My story with IP rating started many years ago, when I joined the company that I’m working for, my senior engineer wrote two letters in a small piece of paper, gave me the paper, and asked me to make an internet search about this two letters. The word was IP.

Back then I had no smart phone to use in the search, I didn’t even had a laptop. I had to make the search on my dad’s PC.

After 11 years, I’m writing about IP rating, to help you to find the correct information in case of your senior engineer ask you to make an internet search. Feel free to use my android application Fast Electrical Calculator to check IP protection table. Its 100% free on google play store.

Now let’s go in details.

What Is electrical equipment IP rating?

The IP rating , or Ingress Protection rating, is the method that classifies and rates the degree of protection provided by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures against dust and water penetrating.

In other words, IP rating is used to define levels of sealing electrical enclosures and circuits against intrusion from any foreign bodies.

IP rating is published by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The equivalent European standard is EN 60529.

Why is electrical IP rating important?

IP rating for electrical equipment is a safety matter for both the equipment and the humans using it. If we use a lower degree of protection against dust or water, the device may become danger and may get damaged due to dust and water accumulation.

Its essential to choose the right IP rating of the equipment for the application you use. For example if an LED light lamp will be used in a swimming pool, it must be fully water proof to prevent electrical shock of humans through water.

Also, if we are using an electrical motor outsides, we should choose the right IP protection degree. If we don’t, the motor will get damaged and if any water enter its enclosure, it will become electrical hazard for any human contacts with its body..

In my work, we have low IP rating electrical generators. In case of dust accumulation inside the generator windings, the generators get damaged in case of any moisture penetration. The combination of dust and water makes internal short circuit and the windings burn out. 

I have written a complete guide about motor burn out causes and protection. You can find it here.

What is the meaning of 1st and 2nd x in IPxx?

Numbers that follow IPxx rating code each have a specific meaning:

  • The first x indicates the degree of protection that the enclosure provides against dust and solid parts.
  • The second x, defines the liquid ingress protection level that the enclosure provides.

IP rating code is written as IPxx, while xx are two digits representing the degree of protection.

What does the X mean in IP2X?

IP2X means, The equipment has IP rating 2 against solid parts, while the factory performed no tests about the liquid protection degree on this equipment.

When an X letter is set instead of the IP rating number, this means there are no tests for this protection of this equipment.

Example of IPx:

  • IPX7, indicates that this equipment is not protected against foreign bodies ingress, And is only protected against moisture with rating of 7.
  • While an equipment of IP5X is protected against foreign bodies ingress with protection degree of 5, While it has no moisture protection testing.

IP Rating Tables

IP RATING

Rating tables are below with the description of the protection degree.

IP First Digit (Solid Particle Protection)

IP Protection Degree Digit
No protection

0

Protection against solid parts larger than 50mm diameter, such as the back of the hand.

1

Protection against solid parts >12.5mm diameter, such as Fingers or similar tools and objects.

2

Protection against solid parts >2.5mm diameter, such as Tools and wires.

3

Protection against solid parts >1mm diameter, such as screws and wires.

4

  • IP5x The equipment is Dust Protected. But not fully tightened against dust penetrating.
  • IP6x Fully protected against dust.

5

                                            

Second Digit (liquid ingress protection)

IP Protection Degree

Digit

No protection

0

Protection against vertically falling water

1

Protection against water up to 15° from vertical

2

Protection against water spray up to 60° from vertical

3

Protection against water splashes from all directions

4

Protection against low-pressure jets from any angle

5

Protection against direct high pressure jets

6

Protection against full immersion for up to 30 minutes at depths between 15 cm and 1 meter

7

Protection against extended immersion under higher pressure ingress

8

(K): Protection against high-pressure, high-temperature jet sprays of water

9

What is IP rating 3rd digit – IK impact protection rating?

IP rating third digit, also known as IK rating,  represents the protection against the mechanical impact. It indicates the protection an enclosure provide the components inside it against mechanical impact. and is often not specified.

The impact protected devices are commonly used where the enclosure is exposed to mechanical impact such as construction sites and industrial locations. IK Rated products are important to protect enclosure devices and components inside it. This protection may be a safety or economical issue. One main component may cause a complete production line to stop working. Here comes the importance IK Rated products.

IK00 – No Protection

IK01 – Protection against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 56mm.

IK02 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 80mm..

IK03 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.2kg mass dropped from 140mm.

IK04 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 200mm.

IK05 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 280mm.

IK06 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.25kg mass dropped from 400mm.

IK07 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 0.5kg mass dropped from 400mm.

IK08 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 1.7kg mass dropped from 300mm.

IK09 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 5kg mass dropped from 200mm.

IK10 – Protected against the external mechanical impact of a 5kg mass dropped from 400mm.

Which IP is waterproof LED lights?

  • IPx8 LED lights are fully protected against water penetration and immersion. LED lighting with IP68 can be fully immersed in water continuously and of course can be used outdoors.
  • IPx7 LED lights are also water proof and you can use it anywhere outside, but IP67 LED lights can’t be immersed in water continuously.
  • IP65 LED lights are splash proof and can be used in bathroom and under kitchen cabinets.
  • IP33 LED lights are not water or dust proof, they are good for indoor places where no water splashes or dust exist.

IP code on electrical equipment name plates

IP rating code should be listed on the electrical equipment nameplate. Such as motors nameplate, electrical circuit enclosures, transformers and all enclosures nameplates.

Easy IP Table On Your Smart Phone

Fast electrical calculator android app contains IP rating code easy table, iyt is easy to use, just type the first and second digit and the app will show you the protection degree of this IP code, install the app now for free.

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